Gamigaya-Gobustan Alphabet

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Gamigaya-Gobustan Alphabet

The researches that I carried out during recent years convinced me of that Azerbaijan is homeland of the most ancient and the most perfect alphabet in the world, and Azerbaijani-Turkish nation is the creator of this alphabet. It is talked about Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet. I revealed this alphabet studying Gamigaya and Gobustan monuments, familiarizing with the works dealing with these monuments.

The first information about Gobustan monuments dates to 1924 (3); in 1938 scientist-archaeologist Isag Jafarzadeh revealed them, and in 1947 he started their researches. After I.Jafarzadeh’s decease his work was continued by scientists-archaeologists Firuza Muradova and Jafargulu Rustamov. The first and the main book-album about Gobustan (“Gobustan”) was published in 1973 with authorship of I.Jafarzadeh (4). In that book there were printed accurate photocopies of rock paintings and signs of Gobustan, and there were given their general characteristics. The author noted that those paintings and signs were engraved on the rocks beginning from the VIII millennium B.C. (3) In subsequent years more several books about Gobustan saw the light (4). In those books it is also informed that Gobustan paintings are “hand-made works of primitive people, hunters and herdsmen” (5).

But the paintings here visually indicate that they are the traces of highly developed culture. The rocks paintings and signs of Gobustan were not the work of “hunters and herdsmen” by no means, but they were result of work of talented artists and experts, who had carved and engraved paintings and signs on Gobustan rocks with artistic-geometric- mathematical accuracy. All of them are word designations. And firstly they express Divinity, belief in fire (light), relation of earth and sky, cosmic mind.

Gamigaya monuments were discovered in 1968 by Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor Vali Aliyev. Mr Vali exposed in detail the results of his researches in his books (6). He stated that in Gamigaya there are also found the ancient script characters. Disclosure of their essence is affair of expert-linguists.

Since 1970s academician Isa Habibbayli, doctors of historical sciences Abbas Seyidov, Vali Bakhshaliyev, Gadir Gadirzadeh and other scientists had worked a lot over Nakhchivan petroglyphs, and had found in them the traces of the alphabet created by ancient generations. Outstanding scientist and writer Abulfaz Huseyni also researching Gamigaya petroglyphs and working hardly over them for a long time established that all these pictograms are expressions of the ancient writing.

As A.Seyidov writes in his “Gamigaya” book (7), the main reason of appearance of Gamigaya paintings was world-view – that is ideological thinking of ancient human living at that territory.

In above mentioned books of I.Jafarzadeh and J.Rustamov it is noted that among the rock paintings of Gobustan there are striking the signs resembling characters and marks (3, 4).

Presence of alphabet characters in Gobustan and Gamigaya for the first time was found out by author of this text, who revealed this alphabet from pictographic row.

I compared, confronted Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet with several ancient alphabet symbols, tried to determine the place of sound of every symbol-letter, their pictographic-ideographic-mythic code-content. Conducted analyses, comparison corroborated that this is ancient, original national Azerbaijani (Turkish) alphabet was generated in Azerbaijan some millenniums ago and is a product of Azerbaijani (Turkish) intellect and mind.

Comparison with “Orkhon-Yenisei” alphabet showed that:

  1. In Orkhon-Yenisei there are lack the А, Б, Г, Ф, П, Д, Ч, Ж, Ш, characters which are present in Gamigaya-Gobustan. The sounds of these letters in Orkhon-Yenisei are defined by other characters.
  2. If in Gamigaya-Gobustan every character indicates one sound, in Orkhon-Yenisei the K sound has 10 designations, and the Ш sound has 5 ones (9). Other sounds have several characters as well.
  3. In contrast to Gamigaya-Gobustan, in Orkhon-Yenisei vowel sounds А–Ə–Е, Ы–И, О– Ö, У–Y are expressed by joint characters. Some consonants: Д, Й, К, Л, М, Н, С, П, Р differ phonetically from the consonants in Gamigaya-Gobustan.
  4. In Gamigaya-Gobustan there are not the sound conflations existing in Orkhon-Yenisei.

 

32 LETTERS: 9 VOWELS AND 23 CONSONANTS

According to my opinion, Orkhon-Yenisei and Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabets follow each-other, but they are different and self-dependant. They are related Turkish alphabets.

In comparison with Orkhon-Yenisei, Gamigaya-Gobustan looks relatively “poor” by number of characters. Certainly, Orkhon-Yenisei conceals a lot of undisclosed enigmas. I think, both Turkish alphabets are very ancient. In Eurasia area Orkhon-Yenisei alphabet is eastern alphabet, but Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet – is western. Therefore, ancient and modern European alphabets, a number of alphabets of the Middle East – are genesis of Gamigaya-Gobustan. I came to such conclusion after countless number of comparisons and confrontations of different alphabets. I compiled tables of all these comparisons. These comparisons show that Phoenician, Greek, Latin, Cyrillic, Jewish, Arabic, Iranian (Pahlavi), Sanskrit, Brahmy (India), star, Avesta, Zinjirli, Fet disk, Glozel, Ethiopia, Cyprus, Hett, China, Japan, Chorea, Scandinavian runes and etc. alphabets and marks (Oghuz, Anatolia and other marks) adopted a lot from Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabets.

Among all above-listed Gamigaya-Gobustan is not only the most initial, but also significantly more rich, substantive and complete alphabet. It completely meets phonetic and lexical features of Azerbaijani (Turkish) language. Other script characters found out in Azerbaijan: in Ganja, Shamakhi, Kalbajar, Mingachevir, Hajigabul, Nyuvedi, Tabriz-Ahar, Pirallahi and Ichari-shahar script patterns one-to-one match the characters of Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet.

During intrusion of invaders into Azerbaijan Gobustan was not inaccessible fortress for them, that is why you can meet here some Arabian, Persian and Roman characters. Unlike Gobustan, Gamigaya remained independent from the occupants by the second half of XX century. The most ancient paintings and script characters of Gobustan are fully confirmed by Gamigaya characters.

The fact of discovery of Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet symbols in different regions of our republic evidences that this old alphabet had been spreading, studied, been in use in Azerbaijan, in the Middle East and even in Europe since millenniums B.C. up to the VII-IX centuries of the I millennium CE, especially till occupation of Azerbaijan by Arabians. Adoptions and appropriations sl ooccurred during this process. A lot of legends connected with belief in God, ballads, narrations, songs, proverbs, wise sayings had been written by Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet. Script characters found in the territory of Azerbaijan – are product of creativity of Azerbaijani nation itself. It is out of the question that Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet was brought in Azerbaijan beyond the border of the country.

Vali Aliyev writes in his book of “Gamigaya Monuments” that you can meet in Gamigaya interesting paintings, made of different conventional signs resembling ancient writing. The author also indicates that from scientific point of view it is reasonable to seek tribe symbols and marks in rock paintings, as well as in antique script characters in Gamigaya. But in order to come to correct scientific conclusions, intensive research work of scientists-linguists on rock paintings and symbols is needed. There is no need to put forward invented considerations of advertising type concerning the rock paintings, to mislead wide audience of readers.

Concerning gravestone epitaph transferred to local history museum of Ganja in 1960 Nasir Rzayev writes that this ancient script cannot remain out of interest of specialists.

Alongside with Gamigaya I reviewed these symbols too. It became clear that Ganja script completely matches the symbols of Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet. That is, just like Shamakhi, Tabriz and Nuvedi symbols, they are also the characters of the local Azerbaijan alphabet.

In fact the idea of spreading and functioning of the alphabet of Orkhon-Yenisei system in Azerbaijan has been sounded more than once since 1920 up to present time. But nobody could even suppose that the alphabet of this type could be created in Azerbaijan. I think, Orkhon-Yenisei could be presented in Azerbaijan by its own sounds. The “stepping” A, P letters, the multicolored letter Ф, the letter θ directly indicating the water, the T and Ш symbols in Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet not existing in Orkhon-Yenisei alphabet, abundance of 8 symbols and star marks in Gamigaya-Gobustan, and other local symbols prove that Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet is the ancient local Azerbaijani phonetic alphabet, ad it was created by Azerbaijani nation, and its history starts from remote millenniums B.C.

Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet consists of 32 letters: 23 consonants and 9 vowel sounds. They have about 100 symbols. It has not been succeeded to get entire texts written by this alphabet yet.

Return of Gamigaya-Gobustan in the world put an end to mythic “precedence” of Phoenician alphabet. From now on Phoenician alphabet is not “the alphabet which existed before Orkhon-Yenisei”, and Orkhon-Yenisei appeared on basis of Gamigaya-Gobustan model, but not of the Phoenician-Aramaic alphabet.

But even in this case the model, inherent secrets of Orkhon-Yenisei remain partially uninvestigated. Therefore, I think, for the present it may be put forward such an idea that: Orkhon-Yenisei was enriched by Gamigaya-Gobustan. Its disclosure is connected with future researches.

Orkhon-Yenisei alphabet was read by text logic. The sounds of its letters were determined on basis of text, and it would be impossible to read it without text even now.

I succeeded to read Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet out of text – to determine sounds of the letters by disclosing pictographic-mythic codes of the letters. In the beginning I compared, confronted Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet with Orkhon-Yenisei, and transferred in one nest the symbols of Gamigaya-Gobustan together with the appropriate symbols of Orkhon-Yenisei preserving the sequence. The sounds of the Orkhon-Yenisei characters and Gamigaya-Gobustan characters turned out incompatible. Finally, I found out that the sounds of the Orkhon-Yenisei characters were nearer to conditionality.

Continuing the researches I watched attentively the paintings, the symbols engraved on Gobustan rocks again with intention that Gamigaya and Gobustan belong to the same culture, embody origin of a single mind.

My researches brought to greater results than I expected:

  1. I used to think that Gobustan is more ancient than Gamigaya. According to opinion of deceased scientist Isag Jafarzadeh, drawing of the paintings on Gobustan rocks started from the VIII millenium B.C. and continued up to II millennium CE (3). In principle, in Gobustan besides the paintings there have to be also script-pictographic symbols which surely repeat Gamigaya with some phonetic deviations.
  2. Received results showed that Gobustan is continuation of Gamigaya, or least, is its peer. In any case, Gobustan is not older than Gamigaya by no means.

As I expected, I faced in Gobustan not a few, but more than 200 pictographic symbols. In “Gobustan” book by I.Jafarzadeh they were picked out of the paintings just as pictograph-symbols. I selected and copied out alphabet symbols among the pictographs. Among the paintings, as in Gamigaya, there are the symbols which remained out of attention of the archeologist or were not recorded intentionally. I addressed again Orkhon-Yenisei and Gamigaya and came to conclusion that the sounds of Orkhon-Yenisei are not identical with the sounds of the ancient Azerbaijan alphabet. This may be connected with differences that existed between the sounds of language of ancient Altai Turkic peoples and ancient Azerbaijan language. The sounds of Gamigaya-Gobustan more match their pictographic content in comparison with Orkhon-Yenisei.

The “A” pictograph is the first example of that. “A” is like “stepping man” (man in Azerbaijani is [adam]). Therefore, adam is A, the first who was created by God. A – is “Agh” (in Azerbaijani: “white”), “Ad” (in Russian: “hell”) is “Od” (in Azerbaijani: “fire”).

Here Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet differs from Orkhon-Yenisei. As we already noted, Gamigaya-Gobustan script characters are closer to their sounds and code contents.

Ex facte, “modernity” of sounds of Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet provokes wonder. But similar “modernity” is present in Orkhon-Yenisei too. For example, modern Latin “в”, which is also used in Cyrillic, is present also in Orkhon-Yenisei as a character and sound in the 5th row with a little alteration. Certainly, in comparison with Latin and Cyrillic, surely, priority belongs to Orkhon-Yenisei. The letter C in Cyrillic adopted from Gamigaya-Gobustan is formed from the letter c in Orkhon-Yenisei after extraction of the line bending smoothly to the left. But the sound is identical both in Orkhon-Yenisei and in Cyrillic.

Mythological sequence implying from belief in God, from primary fire-water couple and height-depth principle turned out irreplaceable helper in affair of determination of sounds of Gamigaya-Gobustan characters. For example, according to this principle, the “ϴ” character indicates exceptionally the sound. “ҝөл” ([gθl]) is in meaning of water, and (-): “plus” (+) – + is in meaning of fire and water balance. And here pictographic sound: ”Ҝөл” is a picture of a little lake (in Azerbaijani “ҝөл” means “lake”). It is also confirmed by “height-depth” principle based on Turkish mythology. It also confirms that the native sound of Azerbaijan language and its graphic character is related with grammatical rules of ancient Azerbaijani language.

In Orkhon-Yenisei several symbols simultaneously indicate two letters (9). For example, a/ә, ы/и, о/ө, у/ү. There are other differences too. If Gamigaya-Gobustan had been continuation of Orkhon-Yenisei, it would have adopted its sounds. Our wise forefathers – compilers of Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet – planned and developed it in full accordance with rules of ancient Azeri language.

Gamigaya-Gobustan affirms also such a truth that alphabet cannot be developed and invented by one man during a month or a year. It may be generated passing through many years of experience and trials, basing on ancestral psychology, world view, unity of language and religion of a human community, ethnos – nation, being picked up among pictographs – picture-words, marks, symbols, formed and being drawn up in one line. The all nation becomes the creator of such alphabet. An alphabet passes through several stages till being formed as a valid alphabet. No less than a few or tens of competent connoisseurs take part in its compilation and “alignment”. They correctly identify the “native dialect” out of multitude dialects and accents of the native language, generalizing them, going deep into secrets of conversion of a sound to a word. Just in these conditions, with available opportunities, they complete creation of the alphabet that had been developed and formed during many years. Some of them have more, and some have less merits in this work. Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet was created just under such conditions, basing on such requirements. In this alphabet almost every letter, every symbol has its own creation history. In this book there will be talked about those histories as far as needed. It appears that it would be opportunely to pay attention shortly on way of development of some letters in this alphabet.

Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet was multiform (rich). And the alphabets which appeared later adopted needed letter from its multiform characters. And as a result, every adopted alphabet benefited from the prior alphabet.

The letter A /a/ – was similar to the ox head (Ox constellation).

The letter Б /b/ – reflects the form of “buta” (“buta” is national pattern in Azerbaijan). Its image appeared from “buta”. Б – is also pictograph of a “human”.

The V variant of the letter В – is its half variant.

The letter I together with “Ishiq” (in Azeri: “light”) content – is pictograph of the Sun rays. Putting “prolonged” point │`│ parallel on its upper half part, in the middle, there was created İ and its small form: i.

In Gamigaya-Gobustan the pictograph of “birth” (“doghum”) was engraved on the rocks as “9” (“doqquz” – “nine”), “D” “doghum” (“birth”); “Dagh” (“mountain”).

The letter L was formed from “əl” (“hand”) and “ayaq” (“leg”) pictographs, L – hand, Л – leg; or L – leg, Л – legs.

In ancient Azerbaijan alphabet from U part of the letter U there appeared the second У (At present U – is Latin, У – is Cyrillic).

The letter Y in this alphabet is mark-pictograph differing from the letter “u” by its way of being narrowed.

The letter O expresses round form of lips while pronouncing, besides O – is pictograph of the Sun and the Earth. When it s implied the Sun, a point is put in the centre of the letter. In celestial alphabet “O” as a symbol of the star of the “Earth planet” reminds that ancient Azeri-Turkish people knew about globular form of the Earth as long ago as 8-10 thousands of years. But nevertheless, old Galilee was bullied with death in order to forth him pronounce that: “No, the Earth is not round!”.

The letter ϴ indicating lake ((in Azerbaijani “ҝөл) – is the most ancient letter and sound of our native language. But one of our respected scientists groundlessly alleges that the letter ϴ did not existed in Azeri language by the XIII century. Just imagine, which torments I had to suffer on this way!

The letter M in Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet as a graphic symbol indicates “more water than lake” – large water: sea. It is a “long wave” as continuation of little water wave in “lake”. The “long waves” on striped vests – are elements of the letter M.

The letter M “was created” from the pictograph M – “a lot of water”. The letter “M” in the words Mərmər (Sea of Marmara), QəMər (the Moon), – nəM (dampness), Море (sea). Yağ+Mur (rain), Ur+Miya (Urmia), Şi+Mal (north), Молоко (milk) – are the derivatives of the pictograph “a lot of water”, “large water” in our ancient alphabet from.

In mythology the Sun represents fire, and the Moon – water. Three-days Moon forms C pictograph and the letter C. The first letter C in the words “su” (water), “sən” (you), “suvar” (irrigate), “север” (North) is the natural result of this succession.

In Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet the symbol S was formed of the letter “C” by mirror method. Vault of heaven – “səma” (sky) is portrayed as C, and “Su üzü” (water surface) – is C, S pictograph.

The letter S as a symbol differs by “much water” ignorance.

In Gamigaya-Gobustan the letters N – H – are derivatives of similar pictograph, and indicate en-N and lower-case n letters.

m being derivative of the letter T in Gamigaya-Gobustan – is a pictograph-mark of “Tarak” (“comb”).

It was possible detect several more phonetic features of Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet. For example, in this alphabet:

The letter Ф is the pictograph of mirror and eye at the same time; Latin letter F – is the second half of the Ф letter of ancient Azeri alphabet in reflected form.

  1. Some letters (A, O, Ö, K, Z), are mainly written in similar form;
  2. Some letters are written in two and more forms (Б, В, Д, У, Т, N, S, R);
  3. Some of the letters are written by reflection method depending on their place in text or in word;
  4. In text the letters are mainly written from left to right, not being connected. It can be identified by written form of some words: ANA, SYPBAN, CEVIT, İŞTAR, GÜN, XAN, BAĞ, AY and etc.

Alongside with it, it is still difficult to express categorical opinion concerning probability of use of the pictographs constructed of letters in a text.

Conclusion: the ancient Azerbaijan alphabet is one of the alphabets staying on the basis of single alphabet system in the world.

Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet – is a grand mirror of very rich culture of ancient Azerbaijan – ancient Oghuz nation, its historical deed, and it is valid scientific evidence assuring habitation of Azerbaijan nation in its native land from the very ancient times, its ancient origin not being derived from any assimilation, and excluding all doubts about it.

Gamigaya-Gobustan monuments – are the most ancient and main sources revealing fundamental ideas of Azerbaijan mythology and “Kitabi-Dede Gorgud”.

In Gamigaya some letters have 2-4 forms, which derived from each other. These dynamic developments observed in letters were attracted in a table. In far millenniums each of these images were used in texts. If the texts are found in the future, it will be possible to clarify this feature.

In the “Birth, fetus” picture of Altay Turks a human was described with 32-bone connections from head to heels. Perhaps, 32 teeth in mouth is its contracted repetition? In Gobustan paintings (for example, on the 29th stone, also counting as 23+9) the 32 signs are embodiment of creation memory. Because of sanctity the number 32 turned into name of tribes, settlements, villages (“32s” – “Otuzikilər” village in Barda and Imishli regions). The number 32 also corresponds to 4 elements of creation: 32:4=8; 8:2=4.

Finally, perhaps, it is not incidental that the creation alphabet – Gamigaya-Gobustan consists just of 32 letters. Following this secret may bring you to very interesting findings.

 

OUR ANCIENT ALPHABET IS NOT ARABIC

The Arabic alphabet being derived from the ancient Azerbaijan alphabet was unacceptable for Azerbaijan nation, because it was based on phonetics of absolutely strange language, and because of a number of serious difficulties in it. The specialists also admit that this alphabet put foundation of mass ignorance of Azerbaijan nation in the VIII-IX centuries

Just a few people could master that alphabet with difficulty. Initially Arabic alphabet was used just for writing Arabic words and texts. Javidan-Babak revolt that took place in the VIII-IX centuries was also a revolt against the Arabic alphabet imposed on people by force. This wave of protest smoldering from time to time was fired again by Mirza Fatali Akhundov in the XIX century, and eventually, in 1926 Azerbaijan nation got rid of this alphabet once for all.

In the sequel Latin, Cyrillic and finally the last – Turkish Latin alphabets considerably approximated to the ancient Azerbaijani alphabet even though with its partially distortion. It is not accidental that denial of the Arabic alphabet in 1920s sounded as a cultural revolution. Liquidation of mass ignorance of the people started just after its escape from influence of the Arabic alphabet.

Our specialists who are teaching at present the Arabic alphabet in our secondary schools and in the higher schools with Arabic-Persian bias speak of its difficulties, and even of its “biggest difficulties”. For example, as Z.T.Hajiyeva writes in her book entitled “The Old Alphabet” (1980), just one of four forms of a letter should be chosen in that alphabet. And it depends on that if the letter is positioned in the beginning, in the middle or in the end of the word. (pg. 11).

Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet does not put such difficult conditions. In this alphabet the same letter is written by just the same graphic character in the beginning, in the middle or in the end of word.

Quoting again Z.Hajiyeva: in Arabic alphabet the letter connections and their way of writing “not tearing your hand away from writing” make difficulties. In Arabic alphabet “as in calligraphy, you should not take the pen away from the paper by the end of writing” (again there).

The dots of letters should be put just after writing the complete word. A man of genius M.F.Akhundov protested decidedly against those dots. In Arabic alphabet “it is necessary existence of the element for connection, so that you could connect with the following letter”.

But in Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet there is no reason for moral collapse. After all, aesthetic shape of the letters and some pictograms of Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet bring inspiration and pleasure. There were not need in such a great number of elements and dots. To learn Arabic alphabet you should acquire “the habit to choose the form correctly”. The specialist himself says that difficulty of studying of Arabic alphabet causes moral collapse. But you should be patient and not to lose your inspiration (again there).

“What is a letter?” – Designation of a spoken sound in writing. Generally, every letter expresses definite spoken sound in writing. Spoken sound is the basis of letter” (again there). Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet was created in correspondence with spoken sounds of the ancient Azerbaijani language. In comparison with it, there are a lot of serious difficulties not only in Arabic alphabet, but in the most of world alphabets derived from Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet.

Gamigaya-Gobustan Alphabet

The researches that I carried out during recent years convinced me of that Azerbaijan is homeland of the most ancient and the most perfect alphabet in the world, and Azerbaijani-Turkish nation is the creator of this alphabet. It is talked about Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet. I revealed this alphabet studying Gamigaya and Gobustan monuments, familiarizing with the works dealing with these monuments.

The first information about Gobustan monuments dates to 1924 (3); in 1938 scientist-archaeologist Isag Jafarzadeh revealed them, and in 1947 he started their researches. After I.Jafarzadeh’s decease his work was continued by scientists-archaeologists Firuza Muradova and Jafargulu Rustamov. The first and the main book-album about Gobustan (“Gobustan”) was published in 1973 with authorship of I.Jafarzadeh (4). In that book there were printed accurate photocopies of rock paintings and signs of Gobustan, and there were given their general characteristics. The author noted that those paintings and signs were engraved on the rocks beginning from the VIII millennium B.C. (3) In subsequent years more several books about Gobustan saw the light (4). In those books it is also informed that Gobustan paintings are “hand-made works of primitive people, hunters and herdsmen” (5).

But the paintings here visually indicate that they are the traces of highly developed culture. The rocks paintings and signs of Gobustan were not the work of “hunters and herdsmen” by no means, but they were result of work of talented artists and experts, who had carved and engraved paintings and signs on Gobustan rocks with artistic-geometric- mathematical accuracy. All of them are word designations. And firstly they express Divinity, belief in fire (light), relation of earth and sky, cosmic mind.

Gamigaya monuments were discovered in 1968 by Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor Vali Aliyev. Mr Vali exposed in detail the results of his researches in his books (6). He stated that in Gamigaya there are also found the ancient script characters. Disclosure of their essence is affair of expert-linguists.

Since 1970s academician Isa Habibbayli, doctors of historical sciences Abbas Seyidov, Vali Bakhshaliyev, Gadir Gadirzadeh and other scientists had worked a lot over Nakhchivan petroglyphs, and had found in them the traces of the alphabet created by ancient generations. Outstanding scientist and writer Abulfaz Huseyni also researching Gamigaya petroglyphs and working hardly over them for a long time established that all these pictograms are expressions of the ancient writing.

As A.Seyidov writes in his “Gamigaya” book (7), the main reason of appearance of Gamigaya paintings was world-view – that is ideological thinking of ancient human living at that territory.

In above mentioned books of I.Jafarzadeh and J.Rustamov it is noted that among the rock paintings of Gobustan there are striking the signs resembling characters and marks (3, 4).

Presence of alphabet characters in Gobustan and Gamigaya for the first time was found out by author of this text, who revealed this alphabet from pictographic row.

I compared, confronted Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet with several ancient alphabet symbols, tried to determine the place of sound of every symbol-letter, their pictographic-ideographic-mythic code-content. Conducted analyses, comparison corroborated that this is ancient, original national Azerbaijani (Turkish) alphabet was generated in Azerbaijan some millenniums ago and is a product of Azerbaijani (Turkish) intellect and mind.

Comparison with “Orkhon-Yenisei” alphabet showed that:

  1. In Orkhon-Yenisei there are lack the А, Б, Г, Ф, П, Д, Ч, Ж, Ш, characters which are present in Gamigaya-Gobustan. The sounds of these letters in Orkhon-Yenisei are defined by other characters.
  2. If in Gamigaya-Gobustan every character indicates one sound, in Orkhon-Yenisei the K sound has 10 designations, and the Ш sound has 5 ones (9). Other sounds have several characters as well.
  3. In contrast to Gamigaya-Gobustan, in Orkhon-Yenisei vowel sounds А–Ə–Е, Ы–И, О– Ö, У–Y are expressed by joint characters. Some consonants: Д, Й, К, Л, М, Н, С, П, Р differ phonetically from the consonants in Gamigaya-Gobustan.
  4. In Gamigaya-Gobustan there are not the sound conflations existing in Orkhon-Yenisei.

 

32 LETTERS: 9 VOWELS AND 23 CONSONANTS

According to my opinion, Orkhon-Yenisei and Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabets follow each-other, but they are different and self-dependant. They are related Turkish alphabets.

In comparison with Orkhon-Yenisei, Gamigaya-Gobustan looks relatively “poor” by number of characters. Certainly, Orkhon-Yenisei conceals a lot of undisclosed enigmas. I think, both Turkish alphabets are very ancient. In Eurasia area Orkhon-Yenisei alphabet is eastern alphabet, but Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet – is western. Therefore, ancient and modern European alphabets, a number of alphabets of the Middle East – are genesis of Gamigaya-Gobustan. I came to such conclusion after countless number of comparisons and confrontations of different alphabets. I compiled tables of all these comparisons. These comparisons show that Phoenician, Greek, Latin, Cyrillic, Jewish, Arabic, Iranian (Pahlavi), Sanskrit, Brahmy (India), star, Avesta, Zinjirli, Fet disk, Glozel, Ethiopia, Cyprus, Hett, China, Japan, Chorea, Scandinavian runes and etc. alphabets and marks (Oghuz, Anatolia and other marks) adopted a lot from Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabets.

Among all above-listed Gamigaya-Gobustan is not only the most initial, but also significantly more rich, substantive and complete alphabet. It completely meets phonetic and lexical features of Azerbaijani (Turkish) language. Other script characters found out in Azerbaijan: in Ganja, Shamakhi, Kalbajar, Mingachevir, Hajigabul, Nyuvedi, Tabriz-Ahar, Pirallahi and Ichari-shahar script patterns one-to-one match the characters of Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet.

During intrusion of invaders into Azerbaijan Gobustan was not inaccessible fortress for them, that is why you can meet here some Arabian, Persian and Roman characters. Unlike Gobustan, Gamigaya remained independent from the occupants by the second half of XX century. The most ancient paintings and script characters of Gobustan are fully confirmed by Gamigaya characters.

The fact of discovery of Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet symbols in different regions of our republic evidences that this old alphabet had been spreading, studied, been in use in Azerbaijan, in the Middle East and even in Europe since millenniums B.C. up to the VII-IX centuries of the I millennium CE, especially till occupation of Azerbaijan by Arabians. Adoptions and appropriations sl ooccurred during this process. A lot of legends connected with belief in God, ballads, narrations, songs, proverbs, wise sayings had been written by Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet. Script characters found in the territory of Azerbaijan – are product of creativity of Azerbaijani nation itself. It is out of the question that Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet was brought in Azerbaijan beyond the border of the country.

Vali Aliyev writes in his book of “Gamigaya Monuments” that you can meet in Gamigaya interesting paintings, made of different conventional signs resembling ancient writing. The author also indicates that from scientific point of view it is reasonable to seek tribe symbols and marks in rock paintings, as well as in antique script characters in Gamigaya. But in order to come to correct scientific conclusions, intensive research work of scientists-linguists on rock paintings and symbols is needed. There is no need to put forward invented considerations of advertising type concerning the rock paintings, to mislead wide audience of readers.

Concerning gravestone epitaph transferred to local history museum of Ganja in 1960 Nasir Rzayev writes that this ancient script cannot remain out of interest of specialists.

Alongside with Gamigaya I reviewed these symbols too. It became clear that Ganja script completely matches the symbols of Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet. That is, just like Shamakhi, Tabriz and Nuvedi symbols, they are also the characters of the local Azerbaijan alphabet.

In fact the idea of spreading and functioning of the alphabet of Orkhon-Yenisei system in Azerbaijan has been sounded more than once since 1920 up to present time. But nobody could even suppose that the alphabet of this type could be created in Azerbaijan. I think, Orkhon-Yenisei could be presented in Azerbaijan by its own sounds. The “stepping” A, P letters, the multicolored letter Ф, the letter θ directly indicating the water, the T and Ш symbols in Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet not existing in Orkhon-Yenisei alphabet, abundance of 8 symbols and star marks in Gamigaya-Gobustan, and other local symbols prove that Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet is the ancient local Azerbaijani phonetic alphabet, ad it was created by Azerbaijani nation, and its history starts from remote millenniums B.C.

Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet consists of 32 letters: 23 consonants and 9 vowel sounds. They have about 100 symbols. It has not been succeeded to get entire texts written by this alphabet yet.

Return of Gamigaya-Gobustan in the world put an end to mythic “precedence” of Phoenician alphabet. From now on Phoenician alphabet is not “the alphabet which existed before Orkhon-Yenisei”, and Orkhon-Yenisei appeared on basis of Gamigaya-Gobustan model, but not of the Phoenician-Aramaic alphabet.

But even in this case the model, inherent secrets of Orkhon-Yenisei remain partially uninvestigated. Therefore, I think, for the present it may be put forward such an idea that: Orkhon-Yenisei was enriched by Gamigaya-Gobustan. Its disclosure is connected with future researches.

Orkhon-Yenisei alphabet was read by text logic. The sounds of its letters were determined on basis of text, and it would be impossible to read it without text even now.

I succeeded to read Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet out of text – to determine sounds of the letters by disclosing pictographic-mythic codes of the letters. In the beginning I compared, confronted Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet with Orkhon-Yenisei, and transferred in one nest the symbols of Gamigaya-Gobustan together with the appropriate symbols of Orkhon-Yenisei preserving the sequence. The sounds of the Orkhon-Yenisei characters and Gamigaya-Gobustan characters turned out incompatible. Finally, I found out that the sounds of the Orkhon-Yenisei characters were nearer to conditionality.

Continuing the researches I watched attentively the paintings, the symbols engraved on Gobustan rocks again with intention that Gamigaya and Gobustan belong to the same culture, embody origin of a single mind.

My researches brought to greater results than I expected:

  1. I used to think that Gobustan is more ancient than Gamigaya. According to opinion of deceased scientist Isag Jafarzadeh, drawing of the paintings on Gobustan rocks started from the VIII millenium B.C. and continued up to II millennium CE (3). In principle, in Gobustan besides the paintings there have to be also script-pictographic symbols which surely repeat Gamigaya with some phonetic deviations.
  2. Received results showed that Gobustan is continuation of Gamigaya, or least, is its peer. In any case, Gobustan is not older than Gamigaya by no means.

As I expected, I faced in Gobustan not a few, but more than 200 pictographic symbols. In “Gobustan” book by I.Jafarzadeh they were picked out of the paintings just as pictograph-symbols. I selected and copied out alphabet symbols among the pictographs. Among the paintings, as in Gamigaya, there are the symbols which remained out of attention of the archeologist or were not recorded intentionally. I addressed again Orkhon-Yenisei and Gamigaya and came to conclusion that the sounds of Orkhon-Yenisei are not identical with the sounds of the ancient Azerbaijan alphabet. This may be connected with differences that existed between the sounds of language of ancient Altai Turkic peoples and ancient Azerbaijan language. The sounds of Gamigaya-Gobustan more match their pictographic content in comparison with Orkhon-Yenisei.

The “A” pictograph is the first example of that. “A” is like “stepping man” (man in Azerbaijani is [adam]). Therefore, adam is A, the first who was created by God. A – is “Agh” (in Azerbaijani: “white”), “Ad” (in Russian: “hell”) is “Od” (in Azerbaijani: “fire”).

Here Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet differs from Orkhon-Yenisei. As we already noted, Gamigaya-Gobustan script characters are closer to their sounds and code contents.

Ex facte, “modernity” of sounds of Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet provokes wonder. But similar “modernity” is present in Orkhon-Yenisei too. For example, modern Latin “в”, which is also used in Cyrillic, is present also in Orkhon-Yenisei as a character and sound in the 5th row with a little alteration. Certainly, in comparison with Latin and Cyrillic, surely, priority belongs to Orkhon-Yenisei. The letter C in Cyrillic adopted from Gamigaya-Gobustan is formed from the letter c in Orkhon-Yenisei after extraction of the line bending smoothly to the left. But the sound is identical both in Orkhon-Yenisei and in Cyrillic.

Mythological sequence implying from belief in God, from primary fire-water couple and height-depth principle turned out irreplaceable helper in affair of determination of sounds of Gamigaya-Gobustan characters. For example, according to this principle, the “ϴ” character indicates exceptionally the sound. “ҝөл” ([gθl]) is in meaning of water, and (-): “plus” (+) – + is in meaning of fire and water balance. And here pictographic sound: ”Ҝөл” is a picture of a little lake (in Azerbaijani “ҝөл” means “lake”). It is also confirmed by “height-depth” principle based on Turkish mythology. It also confirms that the native sound of Azerbaijan language and its graphic character is related with grammatical rules of ancient Azerbaijani language.

In Orkhon-Yenisei several symbols simultaneously indicate two letters (9). For example, a/ә, ы/и, о/ө, у/ү. There are other differences too. If Gamigaya-Gobustan had been continuation of Orkhon-Yenisei, it would have adopted its sounds. Our wise forefathers – compilers of Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet – planned and developed it in full accordance with rules of ancient Azeri language.

Gamigaya-Gobustan affirms also such a truth that alphabet cannot be developed and invented by one man during a month or a year. It may be generated passing through many years of experience and trials, basing on ancestral psychology, world view, unity of language and religion of a human community, ethnos – nation, being picked up among pictographs – picture-words, marks, symbols, formed and being drawn up in one line. The all nation becomes the creator of such alphabet. An alphabet passes through several stages till being formed as a valid alphabet. No less than a few or tens of competent connoisseurs take part in its compilation and “alignment”. They correctly identify the “native dialect” out of multitude dialects and accents of the native language, generalizing them, going deep into secrets of conversion of a sound to a word. Just in these conditions, with available opportunities, they complete creation of the alphabet that had been developed and formed during many years. Some of them have more, and some have less merits in this work. Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet was created just under such conditions, basing on such requirements. In this alphabet almost every letter, every symbol has its own creation history. In this book there will be talked about those histories as far as needed. It appears that it would be opportunely to pay attention shortly on way of development of some letters in this alphabet.

Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet was multiform (rich). And the alphabets which appeared later adopted needed letter from its multiform characters. And as a result, every adopted alphabet benefited from the prior alphabet.

The letter A /a/ – was similar to the ox head (Ox constellation).

The letter Б /b/ – reflects the form of “buta” (“buta” is national pattern in Azerbaijan). Its image appeared from “buta”. Б – is also pictograph of a “human”.

The V variant of the letter В – is its half variant.

The letter I together with “Ishiq” (in Azeri: “light”) content – is pictograph of the Sun rays. Putting “prolonged” point │`│ parallel on its upper half part, in the middle, there was created İ and its small form: i.

In Gamigaya-Gobustan the pictograph of “birth” (“doghum”) was engraved on the rocks as “9” (“doqquz” – “nine”), “D” “doghum” (“birth”); “Dagh” (“mountain”).

The letter L was formed from “əl” (“hand”) and “ayaq” (“leg”) pictographs, L – hand, Л – leg; or L – leg, Л – legs.

In ancient Azerbaijan alphabet from U part of the letter U there appeared the second У (At present U – is Latin, У – is Cyrillic).

The letter Y in this alphabet is mark-pictograph differing from the letter “u” by its way of being narrowed.

The letter O expresses round form of lips while pronouncing, besides O – is pictograph of the Sun and the Earth. When it s implied the Sun, a point is put in the centre of the letter. In celestial alphabet “O” as a symbol of the star of the “Earth planet” reminds that ancient Azeri-Turkish people knew about globular form of the Earth as long ago as 8-10 thousands of years. But nevertheless, old Galilee was bullied with death in order to forth him pronounce that: “No, the Earth is not round!”.

The letter ϴ indicating lake ((in Azerbaijani “ҝөл) – is the most ancient letter and sound of our native language. But one of our respected scientists groundlessly alleges that the letter ϴ did not existed in Azeri language by the XIII century. Just imagine, which torments I had to suffer on this way!

The letter M in Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet as a graphic symbol indicates “more water than lake” – large water: sea. It is a “long wave” as continuation of little water wave in “lake”. The “long waves” on striped vests – are elements of the letter M.

The letter M “was created” from the pictograph M – “a lot of water”. The letter “M” in the words Mərmər (Sea of Marmara), QəMər (the Moon), – nəM (dampness), Море (sea). Yağ+Mur (rain), Ur+Miya (Urmia), Şi+Mal (north), Молоко (milk) – are the derivatives of the pictograph “a lot of water”, “large water” in our ancient alphabet from.

In mythology the Sun represents fire, and the Moon – water. Three-days Moon forms C pictograph and the letter C. The first letter C in the words “su” (water), “sən” (you), “suvar” (irrigate), “север” (North) is the natural result of this succession.

In Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet the symbol S was formed of the letter “C” by mirror method. Vault of heaven – “səma” (sky) is portrayed as C, and “Su üzü” (water surface) – is C, S pictograph.

The letter S as a symbol differs by “much water” ignorance.

In Gamigaya-Gobustan the letters N – H – are derivatives of similar pictograph, and indicate en-N and lower-case n letters.

m being derivative of the letter T in Gamigaya-Gobustan – is a pictograph-mark of “Tarak” (“comb”).

It was possible detect several more phonetic features of Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet. For example, in this alphabet:

The letter Ф is the pictograph of mirror and eye at the same time; Latin letter F – is the second half of the Ф letter of ancient Azeri alphabet in reflected form.

  1. Some letters (A, O, Ö, K, Z), are mainly written in similar form;
  2. Some letters are written in two and more forms (Б, В, Д, У, Т, N, S, R);
  3. Some of the letters are written by reflection method depending on their place in text or in word;
  4. In text the letters are mainly written from left to right, not being connected. It can be identified by written form of some words: ANA, SYPBAN, CEVIT, İŞTAR, GÜN, XAN, BAĞ, AY and etc.

Alongside with it, it is still difficult to express categorical opinion concerning probability of use of the pictographs constructed of letters in a text.

Conclusion: the ancient Azerbaijan alphabet is one of the alphabets staying on the basis of single alphabet system in the world.

Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet – is a grand mirror of very rich culture of ancient Azerbaijan – ancient Oghuz nation, its historical deed, and it is valid scientific evidence assuring habitation of Azerbaijan nation in its native land from the very ancient times, its ancient origin not being derived from any assimilation, and excluding all doubts about it.

Gamigaya-Gobustan monuments – are the most ancient and main sources revealing fundamental ideas of Azerbaijan mythology and “Kitabi-Dede Gorgud”.

In Gamigaya some letters have 2-4 forms, which derived from each other. These dynamic developments observed in letters were attracted in a table. In far millenniums each of these images were used in texts. If the texts are found in the future, it will be possible to clarify this feature.

In the “Birth, fetus” picture of Altay Turks a human was described with 32-bone connections from head to heels. Perhaps, 32 teeth in mouth is its contracted repetition? In Gobustan paintings (for example, on the 29th stone, also counting as 23+9) the 32 signs are embodiment of creation memory. Because of sanctity the number 32 turned into name of tribes, settlements, villages (“32s” – “Otuzikilər” village in Barda and Imishli regions). The number 32 also corresponds to 4 elements of creation: 32:4=8; 8:2=4.

Finally, perhaps, it is not incidental that the creation alphabet – Gamigaya-Gobustan consists just of 32 letters. Following this secret may bring you to very interesting findings.

 

OUR ANCIENT ALPHABET IS NOT ARABIC

The Arabic alphabet being derived from the ancient Azerbaijan alphabet was unacceptable for Azerbaijan nation, because it was based on phonetics of absolutely strange language, and because of a number of serious difficulties in it. The specialists also admit that this alphabet put foundation of mass ignorance of Azerbaijan nation in the VIII-IX centuries

Just a few people could master that alphabet with difficulty. Initially Arabic alphabet was used just for writing Arabic words and texts. Javidan-Babak revolt that took place in the VIII-IX centuries was also a revolt against the Arabic alphabet imposed on people by force. This wave of protest smoldering from time to time was fired again by Mirza Fatali Akhundov in the XIX century, and eventually, in 1926 Azerbaijan nation got rid of this alphabet once for all.

In the sequel Latin, Cyrillic and finally the last – Turkish Latin alphabets considerably approximated to the ancient Azerbaijani alphabet even though with its partially distortion. It is not accidental that denial of the Arabic alphabet in 1920s sounded as a cultural revolution. Liquidation of mass ignorance of the people started just after its escape from influence of the Arabic alphabet.

Our specialists who are teaching at present the Arabic alphabet in our secondary schools and in the higher schools with Arabic-Persian bias speak of its difficulties, and even of its “biggest difficulties”. For example, as Z.T.Hajiyeva writes in her book entitled “The Old Alphabet” (1980), just one of four forms of a letter should be chosen in that alphabet. And it depends on that if the letter is positioned in the beginning, in the middle or in the end of the word. (pg. 11).

Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet does not put such difficult conditions. In this alphabet the same letter is written by just the same graphic character in the beginning, in the middle or in the end of word.

Quoting again Z.Hajiyeva: in Arabic alphabet the letter connections and their way of writing “not tearing your hand away from writing” make difficulties. In Arabic alphabet “as in calligraphy, you should not take the pen away from the paper by the end of writing” (again there).

The dots of letters should be put just after writing the complete word. A man of genius M.F.Akhundov protested decidedly against those dots. In Arabic alphabet “it is necessary existence of the element for connection, so that you could connect with the following letter”.

But in Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet there is no reason for moral collapse. After all, aesthetic shape of the letters and some pictograms of Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet bring inspiration and pleasure. There were not need in such a great number of elements and dots. To learn Arabic alphabet you should acquire “the habit to choose the form correctly”. The specialist himself says that difficulty of studying of Arabic alphabet causes moral collapse. But you should be patient and not to lose your inspiration (again there).

“What is a letter?” – Designation of a spoken sound in writing. Generally, every letter expresses definite spoken sound in writing. Spoken sound is the basis of letter” (again there). Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet was created in correspondence with spoken sounds of the ancient Azerbaijani language. In comparison with it, there are a lot of serious difficulties not only in Arabic alphabet, but in the most of world alphabets derived from Gamigaya-Gobustan alphabet.

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