“Discovery of Brazil” – Preface

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Scientists working in the field of history of geographical discoveries carry out some important works related discovery of America and create new scientific research works in order to elucidate this topical problem. Always difference of opinion occurs between scientists of this field and every created work has special significance in the field of geography. R. Daniz has answered questions, which are interesting for scientists by discovering new facts at the result of his researches:

President grant holder on literature, laureate of the “Golden pen” award Ramiz Daniz (Gasimov) writes literary works in several literary genres and scientific works.

Some obscure issues related the first travel of Christopher Columbus (1492-1493) including interesting facts about mysterious map used by him during the expedition are elucidated in“Christopher Columbus, Nasiraddin Tusi and discovery of America”. Unlike known main information, R. Daniz writes that, Christopher Columbus knew where he had been going during his first transatlantic travel and could conceal it from the world community. As this fact is new, it is considered powerful pretension. Real reasons of the failure of three Portugueseexpeditions sent to the west of the Atlantic for research of America are explained in the work. The author prove by indicating perspicacity of Spanish monarchs and disbelief of theking of Portugal that “Mathematical Union” of Lisbon had significant role in appropriation of those territories by Spaniards.

Ramiz Daniz, who investigated scientific activity of the remarkable scientist of Azerbaijan Nasiraddin Tusi in “The scientist passed ahead of centuries – Nasiraddin Tusi”, discovered many facts in this field and elucidated worldwide essence of the scientist’s most works.

The author mobilized all efforts and skills in order to investigate scientific services and achievements of well-known scientist of the East and discovered that some of his works have been stolen by other authors.

It is known that, Tusi had created masterpieces on astronomy, mathematics, geometry, ethics, played important role in development of these sciences and passed ahead of well-known scientists in these fields for some hundred years. The author recalled scientific works carried out by the most famous scientists of Greece, Ancient Rome, Byzantine, Egypt lived in ancient times and Muslim scientists of early middle ages in the field of geography, astronomy and mathematics, noted that, N. Tusi had gained great achievements in mentioned fields and tried to emphasize his talent.

The astronomic catalogue “Zij-i Ilkhani” prepared by Nasiraddin Tusi was used in the discovery of America. Well-known astronomer P. Toscanelli and Ch. Columbus also benefited by this catalogue. Most scientists used this work of N. Tusi for preparation of astronomic catalogues, Russian scientist Lobachevsky and other scientists of geometry benefited by“Tahriru Uglidis” and one copy of “Shaklul Gita” was published by German scientist Regimontan as his own work. One of teachers of I. Newton John Wallis played important role in popularization of Nasiraddin Tusi in England as he used to read lectures based on “Tahriru Uglidis” in Oxford. Nicolaus Copernicus used the following theorem of Azerbaijani scientist proved in “Memories of astronomy” during preparation of “The earth’s revolution”: “Two circles are on the same plane if the diameter of one circle is two times shorter that the diameter of the other one”.

Investigation of the real author of the map prepared as though by Turkish admiral Piri Reis in 1513 and analyzed in most science centers of the world is very significant. After seven-year investigation, scientist of the USA Charles Hapgood found out that mentioned map had been prepared by someone, who knew spherical trigonometry. At that time, the person, who knew spherical trigonometry and applied trigonometry as an independent science, was Tusi.

The author discovered that, the map prepared with ancient manuscripts was constituted in Maraga observatory under the leadership of N. Tusi. Besides it, he noted that, Christopher Columbus had sailed to coasts of the New World with that map and then Piri Reis owned that material together with the traveler’s notes. In a word, America was theoretically discovered in Azerbaijan 200 years before the travel of Christopher Columbus and the author’s purpose is to attract attention of scientists to this fact.

“Enigmatic discovery of Brazil” concerns the problem, which make scientists of geographical discoveries to hesitate, and the author tries to prove that Brazil wasn’t discovered by Pedro Cabral on April 22, 1500 by accident, it was discovered by Duarte Pereira in 1494 in accordance with secret agreement reached with the king of Portugal, but the result of that travel was kept secret for some reasons. In accordance with this work, though Spaniards firstly approached South America and Brazilian coasts, Portuguese were able to conceal them by means of the Pope and became owners of today’s Brazil according to Tordesillas treaty concluded in 1494. Though Portuguese were agree to own lands located at 100 liq west of Azores in 1493, in accordance with the result of the secret expedition of Duarte Pacheco, who visited American coasts after a year, they appropriated large territories by moving the demarcation line between Spain and Portugal for 270 liq towards the west.

The material including rich historical facts and some facts, which aren’t noted in any scientific source, will certainly attract interest of the world’s scientists and this discovery will have special significance. Very likely, the work will be discussed in Portugal, Spain and countries of the continent of America, the discovery of Brazil will be analyzed differently and some corrections will be made in the world’s encyclopedia at the result of the objective decision.

These works may attract attention of intellectual readers of Azerbaijan and foreign countries, which are interested in scientific-literary heritage of scientists of the east and west including N. Tusi, aren’t indifferent to mysteries of travels of Ch. Columbus and P. Cabral and try to be far from illusions concerning discovery of America. Works, which are rich with sensational information, will certainly be interesting for scientists of America and Europe and will start new course in the field of geographical discoveries. This field will be analyzed differently and books of R. Daniz will be guide for scientists working in this field. Because the discovery of the continent of America and Brazil is the most interesting field of the history of geographical discoveries and mentioned works will be considered convenient source for investigation of this theme.

In general, it should be noted that, all three works are great present of Azerbaijan to the geography, so owing to them remarkable and well-known universities and unions of geography will acknowledge that, the history of geographical discoveries is investigated in Azerbaijan, which have ancient roots and rich culture as well.

There isn’t any researcher working in this field of the geography in Azerbaijan. R. Daniz is a pioneer of this field and I’m sure that, his works will be investigated at international institutes of geography and research centers together with works of Y. Svet, J. Baker, J. Beykless, M. Andre, Ch. Verlaine, I. Magidovich, V. Magidovich, V. Gulyayev, S. Morison, S. Swag and other researchers.

  Ramiz Mammadov – Associate Member of  the Academy of Science, doctor of technical

sciences, director of the Institute of Geography of the Academy of Science

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